What is Cartography?
According to the Royal Spanish Academy, Cartography is the art of drawing geographical maps ; the science that studies maps. We could say that it is an “art and technique that, with the help of geographical sciences and their related ones, have as their objective the survey, reproduction and publication of a map.”
The discovery of America revolutionized cartographic practices and the way of understanding the world. In 1507 Martin Waldseemüller drew up a new world map in which he introduced America, but this time Jerusalem did not appear in the center as in the T-O maps, but now it was Europe.
Cartographic practice has changed over time, either due to techniques or technology, but the ways of seeing the world have also influenced the development of this discipline. In the old days, the only way to make maps was by hand. In the technological field, ways have been developed to produce digital maps called Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
The RING BIOGEOART PIA CONICYT SOC 180040 project is an interdisciplinary project that through GeoHumanities and creative principles from Biogeographies, approaches reflection – action on sustainability and co-conservation through rhizomatic immersion processes.
Currently, Chile has ten biosphere reserves that cover about 11.4 million hectares, of which about 3 million correspond to marine areas.
What is a biosphere reserve?
The concept of a biosphere reserve was created in 1974, within the framework of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB for its acronym in English: Man and the Biosphere). According to the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (RMRB), approved by the General Conference of UNESCO in 1985, biosphere reserves are “areas of terrestrial or coastal / marine ecosystems, or a combination of the same , recognized internationally as such in the framework of the MAB Program ”. Biosphere Reserves are not protected areas in the traditional sense of the term, but rather have the objective of reconciling the conservation of biological diversity, the search for socio-economic development and the maintenance of associated cultural values. These are located in the most important areas of biodiversity conservation on the planet. Thus, biosphere reserves must fulfill three basic functions: conservation function, Development function and Logistic Support function.
La Campana – Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve
Of the ten biosphere reserves declared in the country, one of them is the La Campana-Peñuelas biosphere reserve, declared as such in 1984, where the La Campana National Park and the Lake Peñuelas National Reserve stand out. . As of today, the reserve has a total area of 241,787 hectares, including Til Til in the Metropolitan region.
According to the Statutory Framework of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, Biosphere Reserves must comprise three zones: Core, Buffer and Transition. In the RBCP they are distributed as follows:
Territorialization – Deterritorialization – Reterritorialization
Processes that configure the territory, which interweave several elements that are related to each other, such as historical, socio-environmental, cultural, economic and political elements, all of this multiscale.