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Collaborative Atlas of the Biosphere Reserve

JULY 2021

Currently, Chile has ten biosphere reserves that cover about 11.4 million hectares, of which about 3 million correspond to marine areas, where “biosphere reserves are not protected areas in the traditional sense of the term, but whose objective is to reconcile the conservation of biological diversity, the search for socio-economic development and the maintenance of associated cultural values. ” (La Campana Peñuelas Biosphere Reserves, s.f). These are territories whose ultimate goal is to harmonize the conservation of biological, cultural, and economic and social development through the relationship of people with nature, something that is clearly threatened from a point of view of the “Global South” (Fernandez, V. et al. 2014), where the modern colonial reasoning that presents culture and nature in opposition, is reaching its limit; since we certainly live in the “Anthropocene”, (from the Greek anthropos “, human, and” dinner “, new or recent), the age of man, but in reality it is a geological epoch whose name should reflect the impact of man on to Earth, according to Paul Crutzen (2006), since “Human activities have an increasing impact on the environment at all scales, surpassing natural processes in many aspects. (…) human activities are also have become important geological forces, for example, through changes in land use, deforestation and the burning of fossil fuels. ”(Crutzen, 2006) However, despite living immersed in this crisis of scale planetary, the vast majority of people live without paying greater attention to what happens in the world, or others leave this great challenge to the experts, who will find a solution to this crisis; despite considering great global efforts as the objectives Development Sustainable Development (SDG) of the United Nations, to promote and drive conservation, we continue to approach the “6th global mass extinction” (Normander, 2012). “What is the cause of this biological tragedy? The answer is simply human intervention. The five main factors that are leading to this loss of biodiversity, according to the Secretariat of the CBD (Convention on Biological Diversity) are: transformation of habitats, overexploitation, pollution, invasion of alien species and climate change. ” (Normander, 2012). And this is precisely what we want to show in this “Collaborative Atlas of Biosphere Reserves”.

  • By: Design student: Mabel Nuñez, Teacher: Michèle Wilkomirsky

Emerging patterns in Cultural Ecosystem Services as incentives and obstacles for Raptor conservation

JUNE 2021

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment proposed four categories of ecosystem services as regulating, provisioning, supporting and cultural. Of these, cultural services have been the most difficult to quantify despite playing a key role in developing society’s supporting services to ecosystems. By reviewing a series of case studies related to the cultural services derived from raptors, we examine relations between tangible ecosystem services and ‘knowledge’ and ‘beliefs’ as part of supporting services from human societies to ecosystems. We identified types of raptor regulating and provisioning services and patterns in service–knowledge-beliefs that defined positive or negative outcomes for raptor conservation. We also demonstrate how possible interactions between physical, experiential, physical-symbolic and representative-symbolic cultural services and between different stakeholders can create incentives or obstacles for conservation. Predictable patterns in service- knowledge-beliefs provide a framework upon which socio-cultural and ethnobiological aspects of raptor conservation may be combined with ecological research to support conservation initiatives. Based on these patterns we present examples of how cultural services might be employed to better promote raptor conservation while respecting the beliefs and traditions of stakeholders

  • By: Finbarr G. Horgan, Enrique A. Mundaca y Eduardo Crisol-Martínez

Children living in times of pandemic: a geographical, transnational and situated view

MAY 2021

Children living in pandemic times: a geographical transnational and situated view

The aim of this editorial to the Viewpoints Special Issue on ‘Children Living in pandemic Times: a geographical, transnational and situated view’ is, on the one hand, to present a transnational general picture of the COVID-19 situation for children. And on the other, to make a call for childhood researchers particularly focused on children’s geographies, to collaboratively approach this unprecedented situation. The main aspects of children living in pandemic times as they are identified by the different viewpoints in this special issue are presented, highlighting key commonalities and differences across countries, discussing the aspects that emerge from this phenomenon that seem most relevant for research on children’s geographies in these times. Finally, we refer to some of the studies being conducted in different parts of the world, methodological challenges for children’s geographies research under these circumstances, and emerging research questions.

  • By: Susana Cortés Morales, Louise Holt, Jenny Acevedo-Rincón, Stuart Aitken, Danielle Ekman Ladru, Tanja Joelsson, Peter Kraftl, Lesley Murray y Gabriela Tebet

Outbreak after outbreak: children living in a pandemic as a result of Chile’s social unrest


Outbreak over outbreak: children living the pandemic in the aftermath of Chile’s social unrest

Children’s experiences of the pandemic in Chile need to be understood in the context of the social unrest that started explosively (although with a much longer history) in October 2019. We reflect here on children and young peoplés social and political participation in this process, the position of childhood in the Constitution and general inequality as the context in which the pandemic developed. The invisibility of children’s experiences and practices, their generalised vulnerability and the acute socioeconomic inequalities that affect them are discussed as the key elements shaping the impacts of the Covid 19 pandemic in their everyday lives and spatialities.

  • By: Susana Cortés Morales y Camilo Morales

The emotional and cognitive scale of the Human-Nature relationship


The Emotional and Cognitive Scale of the Human-Nature Relationship (ECS-HNR)
  • By: Enrique A. Mundaca, Mariana Lazzaro-Salazar, Lucas Pujol-Cols y María Teresa Muñoz Quezada

The emotional and cognitive scale of the Human-Nature relationship


The Emotional and Cognitive Scale of the Human-Nature Relationship (ECS-HNR)

A bidimensional (cognitive–emotional) novel survey, the Emotional and Cognitive Scale of the Human–Nature Relationship (ECS-HNR), was designed and validated to measure Ecological Awareness (EAW) and Ecological Affectiveness (EAF) as vital aspects of the human–nature relationship. Data were collected in Chile between July and October 2019 from 474 participants ranging between 6 and 85 years old, using the snowball sampling technique. To examine the properties of the ECS-HNR we analyzed the results in terms of its content validity, reliability, factor structure, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. The ECS-HNR comprises 24 items divided into two subscales with three subscales each (EAF: Empathy, Enjoyment, and Connectedness; EAW: Understanding, Appreciation, and Perception). The results demonstrated that the ECS-HNR is a reliable instrument, as items (the two scales and their subscales) exhibited an acceptable internal consistency. Our findings demonstrate that the ECS-HNR allows the integration of both dimensions of the human–nature relationship and is appropriate to evaluate attitudes and feelings toward nature.

  • By: Enrique A. Mundaca, Mariana Lazzaro-Salazar, Lucas Pujol-Cols y María Teresa Muñoz Quezada

Longitudinal exposure to pyrethroids (3-PBA and trans-DCCA) and 2,4-D herbicide in rural schoolchildren of Maule region, Chile


Several studies showed that early exposure to pesticides affects the development and health of children. In Maule, there is previous evidence of the high exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OP) of schoolchildren. However, to date, there are no studies assessing exposure to pyrethroids and the herbicide 2,4-D.

  • By: María Teresa Muñoz Quezada, Boris A. Lucero, Juan Pablo Gutiérrez Jara, Rafael J. Buralli, Liliana Zuñiga Venegas, María Pia Muñoz, Karina Vilches Ponce, Verónica Iglesias.

Emerging figurations of space-time: Chronotopes of the body and the classroom in Chilean education


Emergent figurations of space-time: chronotopes of the body and the classroom in Chilean education

The historical analysis of Chilean education is proposed taking into account the chronotope perspective of the body in the classroom as an analytical tool that allows us to understand how the most basic and organic way of being in society is constructed and ordered – and eventually segregated.

  • By: Sergio Elórtegui, Leticia Arancibia y Andrés Moreira-Muñoz

The flora of the dunes can emerge from Seed Islands (Concón, Chile)


Dune flora can emerge from seed islands (Concon, Chile)

Dune flora can emerge from seed islands (Concon, Chile)

The study of species within natural communities, which has advanced significantly in recent decades, is of great interest in the field of ecology. Through the process of characterizing dunes, sand mounds formed by the wind and their plant communities, we can learn about the physiognomy and floristic composition of the territory. However, little is known about how these plant communities originate. Based on the hypothesis that the flora of the dunes can emerge from the seed islands: holes in the sand 6 cm deep that contain a mixture of seeds, branches of broken bushes and rabbit feces, during the spring we determined the composition of 20 seed islands in the sand dunes of Concón, Chile, and measured how many seeds germinated on each.

  • By: Josefa Farías Giusti-Bilz, Sergio Elórtegui Francioli

Virtual Heritage: A model of participatory knowledge construction toward Biogeocultural heritage conservation


Virtual heritage has recently received attention as a novel way to better conserve geological heritage sites and values through the use of advances in digital imaging technology to synthesize, reproduce, represent and display information. Traditionally, there have been difficulties in the inventory, quantification and consolidation of relevant geological heritage sites. This point of contention has been particularly felt in Latin America: although relevant heritage sites are in danger of disappearing, the application of the concepts of geoheritage and geoconservation has been relatively slow and significant difficulties remain in reaching audiences beyond the circles. academics.

  • By: Pablo Mansilla-Quiñones, Hermann Manríquez, Andrés Moreira-Muñoz

Towards an Integrated Conservation of the Biogeocultural Landscape of Atacama


Towards an integrated biogeocultural landscape conservation of Atacama

The valuation of the different components of the environment, although with world examples, lacks a systematic and comprehensive conservation strategy from a biogeocultural perspective, linking sites of environmental, cultural, geological and geomorphological wealth, among other values. In this context, understanding the landscape is a key aspect to develop integrated strategies that overcome the classic nature / human dichotomies, as it is a dynamic concept that appeals to different levels of analysis of the space, relating elements of the natural environment, together with the perception and sensitive experience of the observer, resulting in particular and unique conditions in each landscape, and also encouraging its observers to be participants in conservation.

  • By: Hermann Manríquez, Andrés Moreira-Muñoz, Pablo Mansilla-Quiñones

Dialogue of the Trades of the Architect and the naturalist, for the construction of an Architecture in Cohabitation

MARCH 2019

The trades of architect and naturalist converge in this exercise of dialoguing the ways of living, where in one sidewalk the architecture is situated with the formal construction of the space and on the other hand the naturalist, who investigates and explores, deconstructing the relationships of the surface for your understanding. The dialogue between both trades is proposed from an ethical position, where architecture is related to the natural environment from coexistence, that is, the construction of spaces where the relationship with other natural entities and physical phenomena is possible.

  • By: Bruno Marambio Márquez, Sergio Elórtegui Francioli

Popular Religion and Sustainability: Improving Synergies within a Biosphere Reserve

Popular Religion and Sustainability: Enhancing Synergies within a Biosphere Reserve

MARCH 2019

Popular religion and its local manifestations are a feature in conservation areas, such as the Biosphere Reserves. There is a link between various religious practices and the environment, such as those dances that ask for rain or places where elements of the environment have a sacred value. This characteristic is an opportunity to build a foundation of ethical and spiritual values ​​to promote sustainability. The La Campana-Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve is an area constantly threatened by various socio-environmental problems, as well as by changes in land use, fires, monocultures, and its location, being between the two most populated regions of Chile. The following article provides a brief review of some religious practices in the La Campana-Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve and reflections on how they are related and constitute an opportunity to promote sustainability, based on the organizational capacity of local communities and their relationship with humans and non-humans.

  • By: Abraham Paulsen, Danilo Petrovich, Andres Moreira-Muñoz

The Chilean Biosphere Reserve Network as a Sustainability Model? 

The Chilean biosphere reserves network as a model for sustainability?


The Chilean Network of Biosphere Reserves presents aspects that show progress towards a real sustainability model, such as the modifications in its zoning, from only including central areas, generally already existing National Parks, to the definition of areas that surround these nuclei, such as the Cabo de Hornos National Reserve, reactivating the MaB Program in Chile. Another of the strengths is the relationship with universities and research, as well as the work of the NGOs. However, the designation of Biosphere Reserves does not mean progress in real conservation, nor does it mean a reduction in environmental threats. In practice, environmental conflicts increase and the reality of poverty and environmental justice is not mentioned.

  • By: Andrés Moreira Muñoz, Francisca Carvajal, Sergio Elórtegui, Ricardo Rozzi

Geography of Absences, coloniality of being and territory as a critical noun in the Epistemologies of the south

Geography of absences, coloniality of the being and the territory as a critical substantive in the South epistemologies

JUNE 2019

The production of geographical knowledge in Latin America is subjected to critical judgment from the perspective of the epistemologies of the South developed by Boaventura de Sousa Santos, generating a dialogue between the sociology of absences and the production of absences in geographical thought. It investigates the spatial dimension of coloniality, proposing to integrate the concept of coloniality of being, and delves into the nature / culture and body / space dichotomies, present in modern science. Subsequently, in the search for answers to the geography of absences, the emergence of the territory is investigated as a critical noun of contemporary social movements that answers the modern-capitalist-colonial-patriarchal reason of the sciences, disputing spaces for the production of geographic knowledge – indigenous, peasant, Afro-descendant, – which has been commonly denied.

  • By: Pablo Mansilla Quiñones, José Quintero Weir, Andrés Moreira-Muñoz

Geopolitical discussions of development and territorial restructuring Iirsa in the Mercosur-Chile axis

Geopolitical discourses of development and territorial restructuring IIRSA in the Mercosur-Chile axis

JUNE 2019

The Initiative for the Integration of Regional Infrastructure in South America (IIRSA) is one of the most ambitious geopolitical strategies for territorial and economic restructuring in Latin America. Its socio-environmental impacts have been reported in various countries in the region, however, in the case of Chile, there is little empirical evidence. This article analyzes the territorial and environmental consequences for the case of the Mercosur-Chile corridor, analyzing the discursive strategies of the promoters of IIRSA regarding development, integration and territory that they propose. Later, the way in which economic investments are assembled to this axis is revealed. And the socio-environmental impacts generated by the bi-oceanic corridor and the expansion of the port of Valparaíso are analyzed. The results reveal the way in which development discourses hide the true territorial impacts that the projects entail.

  • By: Pablo Mansilla Quiñones, Alexander Panez Pinto, María Ignacia Ponce-Hille

A fight for the Territory, a fight against the borders. Nacla report on the Americas

A Struggle for Territory, a Struggle Against Borders

MARCH 2019

The Mapuche conflict in Argentina and Chile questions the notions of borders promulgated by the nation-state. Their territorial dispute encompasses not only material control over the land, but also a struggle to define its nature and use.

  • By: Pablo Mansilla Quiñones, Miguel Melin Pehuen